So Im assuming an indoor application would be okay?
Well, let's say it is less of an issue. This type of corrosion is facilitated by the dissimilar metals being in an electrolyte solution, and is further exacerbated by anything that "completes the circuit." Salt water is an excellent electrolyte, which is why you hear about this problem constantly with coastal boats. However pretty much any water, such as rain water or road spray, will pick up enough minerals to be at least a weak or mild electrolyte, and that's when dissimilar metal contact will begin to corrode.
Also, what would be the lifespan of those rubber tape fasteners outside?
The tape is not a fastener, and is only sticky on one side. It is strictly a dielectric (insulator) to separate the dissimilar metals. The fasteners are the rivets. In order for the rivets themselves not to be the element that completes the circuit (and themselves subject to galvanic corrosion), a butyl-insulated rivet is used. The butyl keeps the rivet head away from the skin and also seals the hole so that no water can ingress.
The tape should last as long as the joint is in place. However if the panels ever need to be separated I would replace the tape with fresh.